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[英语] 2007年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语试题及参考答案

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?楼主| 发表于 2009-10-8 13:07:46 | 只看该作者
Text 2 [451 words]

For the past several years, the Sunday newspaper supplement Parade has featured a column called “Ask Marilyn.” People are invited to query Marilyn vos Savant, who at age 10 had tested at a mental level of someone about 23 years old; that gave her an IQ of 228-the highest score ever recorded. IQ tests ask you to complete verbal and visual analogies, to envision paper after it has been folded and cut, and to deduce numerical sequences, among other similar tasks. So it is a bit confusing when vos Savant fields such queries from the average Joe (whose IQ is 100) as, What's the difference between love and fondness? Or what is the nature of luck and coincidence? It's not obvious how the capacity to visualize objects and to figure out numerical patterns suits one to answer questions that have eluded some of the best poets and philosophers.

Clearly, intelligence encompasses more than a score on a test. Just what does it means to be smart? How much of intelligence can be specified, and how much can we learn about it from neurology, genetics, computer science and other fields?

The defining term of intelligence in humans still seems to be the IQ score, even though IQ tests are not given as often as they used to be. The test comes primarily in two forms: the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler Intelligence Scales (both come in adult and children's version)。 Generally costing several hundred dollars, they are usually given only by psychologists, although variations of them populate bookstores and the World Wide Web. Superhigh scores like vos Savant’s are no longer possible, because scoring is now based on a statistical population distribution among age pecks, rather tan simply dividing the mental are by the chronological age and multiplying by 100. Other standardized tests, such as the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) and the Graduate Record Exam (GRE), capture the main aspects of IQ tests.

Such standardized tests may not assess all the important elements necessary to succeed in school and in life, argues Robert J. Sternberg. In his article “How Intelligent Is Intelligence Testing?”. Sternberg notes that traditional tests best assess analytical and verbal skills but fail to measure creativity and practical knowledge, components also critical to problem solving and life success. Moreover, IQ tests do not necessarily predict so well once populations or situations change. Research has found that IQ predicted leadership sills when the tests were given under low-stress conditions, but under high-stress conditions. IQ was negatively correlated with leadership-that is it predicted the opposite. Anyone who bas toiled through SAT will testify that test-taking skill also matters, whether it‘s knowing when to guess or what questions of skip.


26. Which of the following may be required in an intelligence test?
 [A] Answering philosophical questions.
 [B] Folding or cutting paper into different shapes.
 [C] Telling the differences between certain concepts.
 [D] Choosing words or graphs similar to the given ones.

27. What can be inferred about intelligence testing from Paragraph 3?
 [A] People no longer use IQ scores as an indicator of intelligence.
 [B] More versions of IQ tests are now available on the Internet.
 [C] The test contents and formats for adults and children may be different.
 [D] Scientists have defined the important elements of human intelligence.

28. People nowadays can no longer achieve IQ scores as high as vos Savant's because
 [A] the scores are obtained through different computational procedures.
 [B] creativity rather than analytical skills is emphasized now.
 [C] vos Savant's case is an extreme one that will not repeat.
 [D] the defining characteristic of IQ tests has changed.

29. We can conclude from the last paragraph that
 [A] test scores may not be reliable indicators of one's ability
 [B] IQ scores and SAT results are highly correlated.
 [C] testing involves a lot of guesswork.
 [D] traditional tests are out of date.

30. What is the author's attitude towards IQ tests?
 [A] Supportive.
 [B] Skeptical.
 [C] Impartial.
 [D] Biased.
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?楼主| 发表于 2009-10-8 13:08:41 | 只看该作者
Text 3 [421 words] During the past generation, the American middle-class family that once could count on hard work and fair play to keep itself financially secure has been transformed by economic risk and new realities. Now a pink slip, a bad diagnosis. or a disappearing spouse can reduce a family from solidly middle class to newly poor in a few months.

In just one generation, millions of mothers have gone to work, transforming basic family economics. Scholars, policymakers, and critics of all stripes have debated the social implications of these changes, but few have looked at the side effect family risk has risen as well. Today's families have budgeted to the limits of their new two-paycheck status. As a result they have lost the parachute they once had in times of financial setback- a back-up earner (usually Mom) who could go into the workforce if the primary earner got laid off or fell sick. This “added-worker effect” could support the safety net offered by unemployment insurance or disability insurance to help families weather bad times. But today, a disruption to family fortunes can not longer be made up with extra income from an otherwise-stay-at-home partner.

During the same period, families have been asked to absorb much more risk in their retirement income. Steelworkers, airline employees, and now those in the auto industry are joining millions of families who must worry about interest rates, stock market fluctuation, and the harsh reality that they may outlive their retirement money. For much of the past year. President Bush campaigned to move Social Security to a savings-account model, with retirees trading much or all of their guaranteed payments for payments depending on investment returns. For younger families, the picture is not any better. Both the absolute cost of healthcare and the share of it borne by families have risen-and newly fashionable health-savings plans are spreading from legislative halls to Wal-Mart workers, with much higher deductibles and a large new does of investment risk for families‘ future healthcare. Even demographics are working against the middle class family, as the odds of having a weak elderly parent- and all the attendant need for physical and financial assistance have jumped eightfold in just one generation.

From the middle-class family perspective, much of this, understandably, looks far less like an opportunity to exercise more financial responsibility, and a good deal more like a frightening acceleration of the wholesale shift of financial risk onto their already overburdened shoulders. The financial fallout has begun, and the political fallout may not be far behind.


31. Today's double-income families are at greater financial risk in that
 [A] the safety net they used to enjoy has disappeared.
 [B] their chances of being laid off have greatly increased.
 [C] they are more vulnerable to changes in family economics.
 [D] they are deprived of unemployment or disability insurance.

32. As a result of President Bush's reform, retired people may have
 [A] a higher sense of security.
 [B] less secured payments.
 [C] less chance to invest.
 [D] a guaranteed future.

33. According go the author, health-savings plans will
 [A] help reduce the cost of healthcare.
 [B] popularize among the middle class.
 [C] compensate for the reduced pensions.
 [D] increase the families investment risk.

34. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that
 [A] financial risks tend to outweigh political risks.
 [B] the middle class may face greater political challenges.
 [C] financial problems may bring about political problems.
 [D] financial responsibility is an indicator of political status.

35. Which of the following is the best title for this text?
 [A] The Middle Class on the Alert
 [B] The Middle Class on the Cliff
 [C] The Middle Class in Conflict
 [D] The Middle Class in Ruins
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?楼主| 发表于 2009-10-8 13:10:18 | 只看该作者
Part B
Directions:
You are going to read a list of headings and a text about what parents are supposed to do to guide their children into adulthood. Choose a heading from the list A——G that best fits the meaning of each numbered part of the text (41——45)。 The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There are two extra headings that you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

A. Set a Good Example for Your Kids
B. Build Your Kid's Work Skills
C. Place Time Limits on Leisure Activities
D. Talk about the Future on a Regular Basis
E. Help Kids Develop Coping Strategies
F. Help Your Kids Figure Out Who They Are
G. Build Your Kids Sense of Responsibility

How Can a Parent Help?
Mothers and fathers can do a lot to ensure a safe landing in early adulthood for their kids. Even if a job's starting salary seems too small to satisfy an emerging adult's need for rapid content, the transition from school to work can be less of a setback if the start-up adult is ready for the move. Here are a few measures, drawn from my book Ready or Not, Here Life Comes, that parents can take to prevent what I call “work-life unread ness”。

41. _________________________________

You can start this process when they are 11 or 12. Periodically review their emerging strengths and weaknesses with them and work together on any shortcomings, like difficulty in communicating well or collaborating. Also, identify the kinds of interests they keep coming back to, as these offer clues to the careers that will fit them best.

42. _________________________________

Kids need a range of authentic role models-as opposed to members of their clique, pop stars and vaunted athletes. Have regular dinner-table discussions about people the family knows and how they got where they are. Discuss the joys and downsides of your own career and encourage your kids to form some ideas about their own future. When asked what they want to do, they should be discouraged from saying “I have no idea.” They can change their minds 200 times, but having only a foggy view of the future is of little good.

43. _________________________________

Teachers are responsible for teaching kids how to learn; parents should e responsible for teaching them how to work. Assign responsibilities around the house and make sure homework deadlines are met. Encourage teenagers to take a part-time job Kids need plenty of practice delaying gratification and deploying effective organizational skills, such as managing time and setting priorities.

44. _________________________________

Paying video games encourages immediate content. And hours of watching TV shows with canned laughter only teaches kids to process information in a passive way. At the same time, listening through earphones to the same monotonous beats for long stretches encourages kids to stay inside their bubble instead of pursuing other endeavors. All these activities can prevent the growth of important communication and thinking skills and make it difficult for kids to develop the kind of sustained concentration they will need for most jods.

45. _________________________________

They should know how to deal with setbacks, stresses and feelings of inadequacy. They should also learn how to solve problems and resolve conflicts, ways to brainstorm and think critically. Discussions at home can help kids practice doing these things and help them apply these skills to everyday life situations.
What about the son or daughter who is grown but seems to be struggling and wandering aimlessly through early adulthood? Parents still have a major role to play, but now it is more delicate. They have to be careful not to come across as disappointed in their child. They should exhibit strong interest and respect for whatever currently interests their fledging adult (as na?ve or ill conceived as it may seem) while becoming a partner in exploring options for the future. Most of all, these new adults must fell that they are respected and supported by a family that appreciates them.
4
?楼主| 发表于 2009-10-8 13:10:38 | 只看该作者
Part C

Directions:
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

The study of law has been recognized for centuries as a basic intellectual discipline in European universities. However, only in recent years has it become a feature of undergraduate programs in Canadian universities. (46)Traditionally, legal learning has been viewed in such institutions as the special preserve of lawyers rather than a necessary part of the intellectual equipment of an educated person. Happily, the older and more continental view of legal education is establishing itself in a number of Canadian universities and some have even begun to offer undergraduate degrees in law.

If the study of law is beginning to establish itself as part and parcel of a general education, its aims and methods should appeal directly to journalism educators. Law is a discipline which encourages responsible judgment. On the one hand, it provides opportunities to analyze such ideas as justice, democracy and freedom. (47)On the other, it links these concepts to everyday realities in a manner which is parallel to the links journalists forge on a daily basis as they cover and comment on the news. For example, notions of evidence and fact, of basic rights and public interest are at work in the process of journalistic judgment and production just as in courts of law. Sharpening judgment by absorbing and reflecting on law is a desirable component of a journalist's intellectual preparation for his or her career.

(48)But the idea that the journalist must understand the law more profoundly than an ordinary citizen rests on an understanding of the established conventions and special responsibilities of the news media. Politics or, more broadly, the functioning of the state, is a major subject for journalists. The better informed they are about the way the state works, the better their reporting will be. (49)In fact, it is difficult to see how journalists who do not have a clear preps of the basic features of the Canadian Constitution can do a competent job on political stories.

Furthermore, the legal system and the events which occur within it are primary subjects for journalists. While the quality of legal journalism varies greatly, there is an undue reliance amongst many journalists on interpretations supplied to them by lawyers. (50) While comment and reaction from lawyers may enhance stories, it is preferable for journalists to rely on their own notions of significance and make their own judgments. These can only come from a well-grounded understanding of the legal system.
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?楼主| 发表于 2009-10-8 13:11:15 | 只看该作者
2007年考研英语试题参考答案

Section I Use of English

1.B 2. D 3. C 4. A 5. C 
6.D 7. C 8. C 9. B 10. C
11.C 12.D 13.A 14.D 15.C
16.D 17.B 18.D 19.C 20.D


Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A
21.C 22.B 23.D 24.D 25.C
26.D 27.C 28.A 29.A 30.B
31.C 32.B 33.D 34.C 35.B
36.D 37.A 38.B 39.A 40.D

Part B
41.F 42.D 43.B 44.C 45.E


Part C (仅供参考)

46、一直以来,在这些大学里,法律知识的学习看作是律师的专属,而不是受教育人士必备知识的一部分。

47、另一方面,以类似记者在每天采访和评论新闻时炮制联系的方式,法律把这些概念(公正、民主和自由)和日常实践联系在一起。

48、但是,记者必须比普通公民更为深刻地理解法律,这种说法是基于对新闻媒体的既定常规和特殊职责的理解。

49、事实上,我们很难想象,对加拿大宪法的基本特征缺乏清楚把握的记者如何能胜任政治方面的报道。

50、尽管律师的意见和态度可能会增加报道的深度,但记者最好还是应该依靠自己的理解并做出自己的判断。


Section III Writing (仅供参考)

Part A

January 20th, 2007

Dear Sir or Madam,

I’m a student in the university and a loyal reader of this library. I’m writing to tell some of my ideas, which I hope to be helpful for you.

I notice that many magazines in our library are out of date. It would be beneficial to us students if they could be updated in time. And I suggest introducing some new journals so as to bring new fresh air to the library. Furthermore, since we have a huge number of books, it is not easy to find the right one easily. However, if we can introduce some new searching means, such as implementing new information management system that would be useful.

Thank you for taking time reading this letter and I’m looking forward to seeing some new changes soon.

Sincerely Yours,

Li Ming


Part B

As can be seen from the cartoon, different ideas may come from the same thing. In the picture, while trying to catch the upcoming soccer, the goal-keeper says to himself why it is so big. And, the striker simply thinks in a different way, that is why it is so small?!
What makes such a big contrary on the same tournament at the same moment? It is no doubt that they are facing the very same goal and experiencing the very same moment. However, the subjective views result in different impression on the same object. Many of us may still remember the story of a pony crossing the river, which we learned from the textbook in primary school. The squirrel tells him, the river is deep; and the cow tells him, the river is not deep at all. However, in the end, he tells himself a third answer. Therefore, it is not exaggerating to say that most of us are looking into the world with personal ideas. Subjective mental status may result in a really big difference in personal views, just like the goal-keeper and the striker in the drawing.

A possible solution might be to face any situation as objectively as possible. If we realize this in an objective way, it would be good for us to deal with what we encounter in life, especially when we are in setbacks or facing difficulties.
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